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A transplant surgeon is a surgeon who performs organ transplants. Among the many organs that can be transplanted are: kidneys. livers, hearts, lungs, the pancreas, the intestine (especially the small intestine), and recently, faces, tracheal (windpipe) tissue, and penises. At the present time, some organs, notably the brain and its constituent lobes and subdivisions, cannot be transplanted, and even if possible (recently, research has been done into the subject), would be very controversial for many. However, more extensive research into the transplantation of individual neurons and supportive brain tissue, or groups thereof (including glia, astrocytes, other neural connective tissue, and the surrounding meninges) has been done, and may be more practical and somewhat less controversial. Substitution of whole genes or chromosomes, or large portions thereof, for the purpose of genetic therapy or engineering (which is not actually transplantation, since these are not whole organs, or even tissues) is generally not yet feasible. While the use of tissue grafts- which is much more common- is not transplantation, since an entire organ is not transferred, these two are closely related (skin, hair, and subdermal tissue, connective tissue, musculoskeletal tissue, and corneas are commonly grafted). Sometimes, the separation of conjoined individuals requires transplantation of an organ or organs, especially if complications develop. End-stage renal disease (stages 5 and 6; either acute and non-reversible, or chronic), severe congestive or other heart failure or certain congenital cardiac structural defects (where the blood cannot be oxygenated or backflows, or where the ejection fraction or distribution of blood is insufficient); and advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis (when the lungs are no longer able to function), or emphysema, are possible indicators for, respectively, renal (kidney), cardiac (heart), or pulmonary (lung) transplantation.